January 27, 2023 (Friday) 9:00 am IST by Dr Rujuta Patil, Scientific Head, KROYNAS, India
CEO, Oasis Diagnostics, USA
January 27 (Friday) @ 9:30 am IST
This presentation will cover a number of aspects related to the burgeoning market for salivary diagnostics. After discussing a brief background to salivary diagnostics, the presentation will cover a selection of the dominant technologies used to diagnose diseases using saliva, a number of unique and exciting technologies that are either commercially available or soon to enter the market, and the future of saliva liquid biopsy testing using exosomes derived from saliva specimens.
Cheif of Pediatrics, Women & Infants Hospital, Brown University, USA
January 27 (Friday) @ 9:00 pm IST LIVE
Neonatal gut microbial colonization plays a defining role in both the short- and long-term health of the developing infant. Infants develop their initial gastrointestinal microbial colonization via swallowing, inhalation, and skin-to-skin contact shortly after birth. Thus, biospecimens, such as saliva, have the potential to provide an accurate view of ongoing neonatal gut colonization patterns, as well as human and microbial response to emerging colonization in the setting of morbidities. In a series of a two small pilot studies, we have 1.) chronicled the developing neonatal microbiome through genomic saliva and concomitant stool analyses and 2.) performed metatranscriptomic (e.g. simultaneous genomic and gene expression) salivary analyses to risk stratify infants for impending morbidities based on colonization patterns and response. While salivary microbial profiles did not predict stool colonization, a metatranscriptomic analysis of neonatal saliva highlights disruptive pathways and networks associated with morbidities that can be seen prior to disease onset. These data suggest that saliva is a non-invasively and highly informative biofluid that provides insight into both humans, as well as microbial, gene function and host response.
Director, KROYNAS Pvt. Ltd., Chennai, India
January 27 (Friday) @ 6:30 pm IST LIVE
The paradigm of oral healthcare research is a broad field that encompasses a wide range of disciplines and sub-disciplines, including saliva and genomics research. Advances in these areas have led to a better understanding of the role of saliva in oral health and the identification of genetic markers for oral diseases.
One of the significant advances in saliva research is the development of non-invasive diagnostic tools that can detect oral diseases by analyzing saliva samples. This has the potential to revolutionize the way oral diseases are diagnosed and treated, as it is less invasive and more cost-effective than traditional methods. Additionally, researchers are exploring the use of saliva as a source of biomarkers to aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of various systemic diseases.
Genomics research has also made significant advances in oral healthcare, with the identification of genetic markers for oral diseases such as periodontitis and oral cancer. This has led to the development of targeted therapies that can more effectively treat these diseases. Additionally, researchers are exploring the use of genetic information to predict an individual’s risk of developing oral diseases and to personalize treatment plans.
Despite these advances, oral healthcare research still faces several challenges, such as a lack of funding and a shortage of qualified personnel. There are also several unexplored areas in oral healthcare research, including the study of oral diseases and disorders in low-income and marginalized populations and the impact of environmental factors on oral health.
The field of oral healthcare research offers a wide range of career opportunities, both in academia and industry. Researchers in this field can work in universities, government agencies, or private research institutions. They may also work in the pharmaceutical or biotechnology industries, developing new drugs and therapies. Additionally, there are many opportunities for oral healthcare researchers to work in the public sector, developing policies and programs to improve oral health.
The interdisciplinary education of oral healthcare researchers is crucial to address the complex oral health issues and to provide evidence-based solutions. Furthermore, research in oral healthcare should be evidence-based, meaning that it should be based on reliable and unbiased data collected through rigorous scientific methods.
In conclusion, the paradigm of oral healthcare research is a dynamic field that offers many opportunities for exploration and discovery in saliva and genomics research. Despite the challenges, research in this field holds great promise for advancing our understanding of oral health and developing new and more effective treatments. Interdisciplinary education and evidence-based research are crucial to achieve this goal.
Deakin University, Australia
January 27, 2023, @ 11:00 am IST
Buccal swabs and saliva are often used for medical research but have been used interchangeably, despite evidence that both contain buccal cells and blood leukocytes in different proportions. Such heterogeneity can confound ‘omic’ analysis.
In our first study, we collected both types of oral samples from children and adults and, using Papanicolaou staining, measured the proportions of epithelial cells and leukocytes. We confirmed that buccal swabs contained a higher proportion of epithelial cells than saliva and that children have a greater proportion of such cells in saliva compared to adults. We showed that in children, gingivitis is associated with a higher proportion of leukocytes in saliva. We, therefore, suggest that a quick oral health questionnaire and/or microscopic analysis will be of great benefit for downstream applications. In all human epigenomic analyses to date, no such pre-analysis has been performed and buccal cell proportions have been estimated using a deconvolution algorithm based on the proxy of epithelial cell lines.
In our second study, we compared the two methods to estimate cellular heterogeneity in oral samples. We used data generated from cytological staining and Infinium Methylation EPIC arrays and the EpiDISH deconvolution algorithm from buccal and saliva samples collected from twenty adults. We found that the two are highly correlated in saliva and buccal samples. In addition, by using an expanded dataset from both sample types, we confirmed our finding that age has a significant negative correlation with epithelial cell proportion in both sample types. However, children and adults showed a large within-population variation in cellular heterogeneity. Our results validate the use of the most commonly-used cellular deconvolution algorithm in estimating the effect of cellular heterogeneity in epigenomic studies.
High Performance Travel & Resilience Nutritionist, Fountain Hills, Arizona, United States
January 27, 2023, @ 12:00 pm IST
This is critical because saliva is a vital fluid for survival and plays a key role in both digestive and immune functions. In addition, our saliva adds to our pleasure and sensory appreciation of our foods and eating experiences. It may be a bit surprising, but we produce between 1-2 litres of saliva daily in our typical environment. We are hard-wired for this connection as it happens without us knowing about it. Our saliva production drops as much as 30-50% of normal production during air travel. Emerging science is connecting the quality of our saliva production to a variety of key indicators of health conditions as well as the state of recovery. Most interesting is the connection to personal resilience and autonomic nervous system balance-Especially for the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) tone and recovery side of training.
Saliva production and flow is governed by the parasympathetic nervous system which is tied to rest, relaxation, digestion, and renewal. This system is called the key to rejuvenation and resilience. The opposite of adequate saliva flow is a dry mouth. This often happens when the body is in a state of fight or flight—our stress survival response. This response hijacks our saliva production and suppresses spit flow in times of anxiety, depression, fear, or stress.
Researchers from the Univ of Calgary in Canada raise concern about the pronounced increase in mental illness, anxiety and depression and the resulting reduction in saliva production which appears to erode well-being and resilience. When someone doesn’t produce enough saliva/spit it is known in medicine as Xerostomia. Oral Health Foundation indicates there is a real and urgent need to investigate the impact of dry mouth and its corresponding quality of life.
During my doctorate studies, my research revealed that air travel can reduce saliva production by 30-50% and result in lowered resilience and travel fatigue. Air travel is one of the most intense and unnatural conditions we put our bodies through. Becoming “Spit Conscious” and learning practical ways to “enhance the flow” can change your life and has the potential to influence the world’s health and well-being. In my presentation, I will share ways you can raise the level of your juiciness!
University of Adelaide, Australia
January 27, 2023, @ 1:00 pm IST
Background: The metabolomic and proteomic basis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is poorly understood and the relationships between systemic abnormalities in metabolism and AD/AMCI pathogenesis are unclear. There is a need to detect this disease early before even subtle changes occur in cognition. Detecting early
changes in saliva AD biomarkers is a feasible method. Sample collection is economical, and non-invasive and saliva is an abundant source of proteins and metabolites.
Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the metabolomic and proteomic signature of saliva from cognitively normal and patients diagnosed with MCI or AD, to identify specific cellular pathways altered with the progression of the disease. Methods: We analyzed 80 saliva samples from individuals with MCI or AD as well as age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Saliva proteomic and metabolomic analyses were conducted utilizing mass spectrometry methods and data combined using pathway analysis. ELISA from individuals with AD (n = 16), MCI (n = 15) and cognitively normal (n = 29) was measured for Cystatin-C, Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, Stratifin, Matrix metalloproteinase 9 and Haptoglobin proteins.
Results: We found significant alterations in multiple cellular pathways, demonstrating that at the omics level, disease progression impacts numerous cellular processes. Multivariate statistics using SIMCA showed that partial least squares-data analysis could be used to provide separation of the three groups. The ELISA results showed a significantly altered abundance in saliva from AD and MCI, and were consistent with the mass spectrometry data.
Conclusion: This study found significant changes in metabolites and proteins from multiple cellular pathways in saliva. These changes were associated with AD, demonstrating that this approach might prove useful to identify new biomarkers based upon the integration of multi-omics parameters. The results also provide evidence for saliva being a valuable source of biomarkers for early detection of cognitive impairment in individuals on the AD continuum and potentially other neurodegenerative diseases
Research Scientist at Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases Yale School of Public Health, USA
January 27, 2023, @ 2:00 pm IST
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic presented an unprecedented demand for diagnostic testing. Testing was essential for isolating infected individuals and epidemiological surveillance for public health countermeasures but was frequently strained by high costs, inadequate infrastructure and supply chain disruptions. To overcome these challenges, we developed a low-cost, open-source test in an effort to deliver equitable testing. Key to this was saliva.
Methods: We developed ‘SalivaDirect’ to simplify testing by demonstrating the sensitivity of saliva for SARS-CoV-2 detection; developing clear self-collection instructions; eliminating collection tubes with preservatives; bypassing nucleic acid extraction; validating each step with reagents and instruments from multiple suppliers; demonstrating stable detection after prolonged periods at elevated temperatures; and establishing a novel regulatory model. Recently, we have validated this approach for the detection of influenza A/B, RSV and pox.
Results: Since being granted emergency use authorization (August 2020), 200+ laboratories across 42 US states have been designated to deploy the SalivaDirect SARS-CoV-2 protocol; more than 8 million tests have been run. SalivaDirect’s open-source, streamlined design allows laboratories to utilize existing infrastructure, thereby facilitating rapid scaleup, while enabling quicker turnaround times and ensuring actionable results. Additional approaches, including unsupervised self-collection, direct-to-consumer collection kits, and pooled sample testing, increase autonomy, making it an invaluable option for numerous communities.
Conclusions: The advances in test innovation throughout the pandemic have demonstrated what could be possible for respiratory pathogens across the board. Our extensive validation of saliva and the international implementation of SalivaDirect has demonstrated saliva as sensitive and reliable for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Importantly, this simplified approach is demonstrating applicability to other infectious diseases. Being less invasive and less resource-intensive than other sample types, saliva-based testing can lead to more equitable and sustainable testing and surveillance programs. As a result, saliva can bolster the public health response, particularly in low-resource and remote environments.
Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, Brazil
January 27, 2023, @ 3:30 pm IST
Fishburn May Consulting Inc., North Carolina USA
January 27, 2023, @ 5pm IST
After decades in non-profit management, including the American Surgical Association, Society for Cardiovascular & Interventional Radiology, Council of Biomedical Research and Development at the New York Academy of Medicine, and
the Sjögren’s Syndrome Foundation, her experiences led to serving the confectionery industry as an oral health consultant, where she introduced Xylitol to the US market in 2001. She continues to consult in the food industry. In 2017, she was able to focus on these experiences as the developer of an eco-friendly, paper-based saliva detection device when she partnered with Dr. Cotesworth (Coty) Fishburne, a dental device inventor, to advance the FishburneTabsTM. The FishburneTabsTM are saliva indicators with potential within several industries as well as a clinical aid for physicians and dentists. Forming Fishburne May, LLC, she has partnered with Oasis Diagnostic Corporation of Portland, Oregon to bring this product line to the global market.
She holds a Masters degree in Organizational Development and Institutional Development from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Dean of Research, Distinguished Professor of Diagnostic Sciences, Johansen Professor of Dental Research, Dept. of Oral Medicine, Tufts University, USA
January 28, 2023, @ 9:00 am IST
Dr. Athena Papas received a DMD from Harvard, her PhD from MIT, and had a predoctoral fellowship at Massachusetts General Hospital and a postdoctoral fellowship at Children’s Hospital in the Orthopedic department. She now holds an appointment at the Tufts Medical Center.
As the Erling Johansen Professor of Dental Research and Distinguished Professor of Diagnostic Sciences at Tufts School of Dental Medicine, and the scope of Dr Papas’ research career has been in multiple areas of translational research, including medication and device therapies, caries incidence and remineralization in medically compromised patients with an emphasis on those suffering from Sjögren’s. She has conducted over 100 randomized clinical trials including phase I-IV FDA trials She has received multiple awards including the IADR Distinguished Scientist Award.
Professor at Griffith University, PhD, GCLead, GAICD, Head, Saliva and Liquid Biopsy Translational Laboratory, Griffith Institute for Drug Discovery (GRIDD) and Menzies Health Institute, Gold Coast, Griffith University, Australia.
January 28, 2023 @ 11:00 am IST
During the height of the Covid-19 pandemic, it became evident that there is a need for non-invasive methods of testing to reduce the spread of the virus. During this time, saliva testing came to the fore as a diagnostic medium. Saliva, a multi-constituent oral fluid is becoming popular as the preferred diagnostic medium over other body fluids because of the ease of collection and non-invasive nature. However, the implementation of saliva tests in a clinical laboratory setting requires research.
With an increasing link between oral health and systemic disease, saliva is now being explored as a diagnostic medium to diagnose cardiovascular diseases. We have used saliva as a sample matrix to diagnose patients with heart failure (N=75) from controls (N=36), and a panel of four proteins gave a sensitivity of 83.3%, and specificity of 62.5% with an area under a ROC curve of 0.78. This protein panel is now licensed to ESN Cleer (Australia). It is well established that tumours within the oral cavity secrete biomolecules into the saliva.
Currently, there are no diagnostic tests to detect oral cancer at an early stage; as such, most patients present with metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. We have developed miRNA signatures for the early detection of oral cancer. The discriminative efficiency of our eight-miRNA panel to diagnose oral cancer vs healthy controls was AUC: 0.956 (CI: 0.921 –0.991, p<0.001), sensitivity: 82%, specificity: 98%, whereas between oral cancer and premalignant patients was AUC: 0.916 (CI: 0.856 – 0.976, p<0.001), sensitivity: 92%, specificity: 64%. We have also developed a highly sensitive assay to detect oropharyngeal cancers causing human papillomavirus in saliva samples. This HPV-16 DNA assay has a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 95%.
In conclusion, we demonstrate that salivary proteins and miRNA biomarkers are clinically useful in detecting heart failure and head and neck cancer early in a non-invasive manner, paving the way towards democratising future healthcare delivery.
Imperial College London, England
January 28, 2023 @ 8:30 pm IST
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity evidenced by elevated glucocorticoid (GC) levels [– released as cortisol in man and corticosterone in rodents] has emerged as a putative risk factor for accelerated progression to MCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), even in cognitively normal elderly individuals with abnormal CSF amyloid -Aβ42 levels (Zheng et al 2020, Tsui et al 2020, Udeh-Momoh et al 2019). Given the influence of aberrant cortisol bioavailability on AD symptom development, therapeutic strategies modulating cortisol hyper-secretion may serve to impede disease progression (Watermeyer et al 2020). Focusing on time points prior to the onset of AD symptoms, I will present data from a detailed exploration of the HPA axis biological signature, where we describe fully the intracellular signalling actions of the glucocorticoid hormone at the preclinical stage. Novel findings depicting the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the notable circadian rhythm disturbances at the pre-pathology and pre-symptomatic stage will be presented (Udeh-Momoh et al., manuscript in preparation). Results will be related to findings from a human memory clinic cohort investigating salivary cortisol dynamics in relation to AD pathology and clinical outcomes.
We have previously described pro-cognate effects of brain and cognitive reserve indices in pre-symptomatic individuals at high risk for clinical progression linked to aberrant HPA axis and cerebral amyloid profile (Udeh-Momoh et al., 2019). Leveraging data from the landmark multidomain lifestyle clinical trial – FINGER, that reported cognitive and clinical benefits post intervention, I will additionally present on the impact of the FINGER intervention on change in cortisol bioavailability, including demographical, clinical and brain pathological determinants of the hypothesised treatment response.
Universidad Internacional de La Roja, Spain
K M Shah Dental College, India
January 28, 2022, @12:00 pm IST
Whole saliva is a complex fluid, a mixture of the secretions of the major and minor salivary glands, mucosal transudations, gingival crevicular fluid, serum and blood derivatives from oral wounds, desquamated epithelial cells, expectorated bronchial and nasal secretions, bacteria and bacterial products, viruses and fungi, other cellular components, and food debris thus containing an entire library of hormones, proteins, enzymes, antibodies, antimicrobial constituents etc. Due to the speedy development in the field of salivaomics, saliva is now well accepted as a pool of biological markers and has immense potential as a diagnostic fluid as its collection does not require an invasive procedure, and is economical and useful for monitoring systemic health.
Salivary diagnostics holds great promise as an effective modality for early diagnosis, prognostication, and monitoring posttherapy status and has gained momentum in the past decade.
To be able to appreciate the significance and applications of saliva diagnostics, it is important to understand the science of human saliva i.e its formation and secretion, the factors modulating its secretion, composition, functions, the history of salivary diagnostics and its usefulness in various local and systemic diseases. This presentation gives an overview of all the mentioned aspects of saliva and a brief about the newer technologies applied in saliva
MS, FACS, Fellow Head & Neck Surgery (TMH Mumbai) IFHNOS Global Fellow Head Neck Surgery & Oncology Consultant-Head & Neck Oncosurgery Vishesh Jupiter Hospital Indore, Madhya Pradesh India
January 28, 2023, @ 10:00 am IST
Social media is a computer-based technology that facilitates the sharing of ideas, thoughts and information through virtual networks and communities. The major types of social media are social networking sites, microblogging sites, bookmarking and news sites, media sharing sites and blogs. Medical professionals need social media presence because of various reasons, the data in our country is very cheap, patients are very aware and informed, we need to create awareness about diseases, etc. Facebook and Instagram are for personal use, its always better to create a separate FB page and a different Instagram profile for professional use. Google business profiles and YouTube channels are very useful to connect with patients as they always search for specialists in the city, the channel will be useful for educative videos. Google scholar profile and Researchgate are very useful for sharing your research work and being aware about new publications. They are a must for every professional who is interested in academics and wants to be abreast with the latest developments. Twitter is a new source for academics and there are various threads by prominent scientists and doctors. Never engage with trolls or make profiles on each new platform. Social media is a two-edged sword, if used wisely and judiciously it will be very useful in creating awareness and building one`s practice.
Scientific Head, KROYNAS, India
January 28, 2023, @ 7:00 pm IST
Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. Important research into oral cancer is underway in many university hospitals, medical centers, and other institutions around the country. Each year, scientists find out more about what causes the disease, how to prevent it, and how to improve treatment. Performing impactful research in oral cancer is the need of the hour and Evidence based oral cancer research approach paves way in doing so. Evidence-based research is the use of prior research in a systematic and transparent way to inform a new study so that it is answering questions that matter in a valid, efficient, and accessible manner. Evidence-based research as an approach helps minimize unnecessary and irrelevant clinical health research that is unscientific, wasteful, and unethical, and further aids in providing high quality, useful and impactful research.
Forensic Odontologist, KROYNAS, India
January 28, 2023 @ 8:00 pm IST
This lecture is a part of training in SALSI 23 Online Activity based on Forensic Genomics
Senior Scientific Manager, KROYNAS, India
January 28, 2022, @ 3:00 pm IST
Saliva diagnostic tests are an increasingly popular method for detecting a variety of dental diseases and conditions. Recent advances, particularly in the standardization of the collection of specimens using saliva collection devices, have made it easy for the safe, simple, and non-invasive collection of samples from patients. Salivary diagnostics are already available for nucleic acid testing, drugs of abuse monitoring, and general wellness testing among others. In addition, clinical tests using mass spectrometry for steroid hormones (e.g., cortisol and testosterone) are already performed on saliva specimens in significant volumes in large reference laboratories in the United States. However, there are certain challenges associated with their use in dental practice. For example, the accuracy of these tests can vary depending on the quality and amount of saliva collected, and the results can be affected by certain external factors, such as the patient's diet, lifestyle, and medications. Additionally, the method of collection, cost and time taken for the collection of these tests can be prohibitive for some patients and practices. Hence a pilot study was conducted to assess the barriers to using saliva diagnostic tests in clinical practice- from a dentist’s perspective
Director, Paradise Diagnostics, Delhi, India & Reader Department of Oral Pathology and Oral Microbiology Institute of Dental Studies and Technologies (IDST), Modinagar, India
January 28, 2023, @ 1:00 pm IST
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic musculoskeletal disease with extra-articular manifestations including the involvement of exocrine lacrimal and salivary glands. The oral manifestations of RA include hyposalivation and alteration in saliva components. Saliva is an integral part of the oral cavity. It is a complex mixture of fluid from major and minor salivary glands along with mucosal transudate and various other metabolites. The alteration of saliva function in RA is assumed to be related to the lymphocytic infiltrate present in the affected salivary glands. Saliva is beneficial for laboratory diagnosis, prognosis, and management of patients with RA. It is easily collected, stored, and contains specific biological markers. Potential salivary biomarkers for the diagnosis of RA are salivary microbiota, cytokines, and metabolites. Salivary microbiota of RA patients showed alteration in Hemophilus spp and Prevotella spp. Inflammatory destruction of connective tissue and surrounding bone is a characteristic feature of RA. This inflammatory destruction results from the cooperative actions of cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and proteolytic enzymes together with other proinflammatory mediators. Several inflammatory biomarkers such as interleukin (IL-6), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-8), and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMP-1) were detected in saliva. Hence, the whole saliva of RA patients may consist of serum-derived inflammatory biomarkers originating from inflammatory cells, collagen breakdown, or bone remodeling. Among salivary enzymes, the specific activity of salivary β–glucuronidase and isoenzyme A were significantly higher in RA patients. Thus, the determination of exoglycosidases is a useful tool for the diagnosis of early stages of salivary gland involvement in RA. Although, blood is still the gold standard for the diagnosis of RA, saliva can be considered as an alternative biologic fluid for diagnostic purposes.